Level-1 Instrumentation and Control course

Build a solid foundation in instrumentation and control engineering. Learn about sensors, measurement principles, control systems, and process instrumentation.

The course has been designed to familiarize Electricians and engineers with the fundamentals of Control and Instrumentation. The course will cover temperature, pressure, and flow transducers. The students will be introduced to Single loop PID Controllers and PLC PID control, how signals are connected, and how the controllers are configured.  

The students will be shown and use a plant actuator controlled by the controllers, leading to an introduction to PID configuration. 

Introduction to Open and closed loop systems  

  • What are control and instrumentation? Simple terms, setpoints, PV's, CV's actuators, disturbances, etc., will be introduced. 
  • Understanding the difference between open and closed loop systems. And the terms velocity lag and time constant. 
  • A brief explanation of how temperature is measured? Explanation of thermocouples, bimetallic, Pyros and Rtd's, wiring, testing, and excepted readings. The students will all have practical exercises to work through. Also, the installation and positioning of the temperature transducers will be discussed and practiced. 
  • What are transmitters, and when are they used? The students will wire a thermocouple and RTD to a transmitter to produce a 4 to 20ma or 0-10v signal. Highlighting why 4-20ma is used. 
  • Introduction to calibration of feedback devices, why it is needed and how temperature devices are calibrated. 
  • Introduction to controllers, the students will be shown how dedicated signal loop controllers can be used or PLC. 
  • Introduction to a temperature closed-loop control. 
  • Pressure transducer construction. 
  • The students will test and understand the 4-20ma loop for a Pressure transmitter.. 
  • Introduction to a basic pressure closed loop system. 
  • Introduction to PID terms Proportional Band, Reset and Rate and calculations for the PID terms. 
  • Understanding flow measurement and transmitters. 
  • Introduction to a basic flow closed loop system. 
  • Understanding Level Measurement and transmitters. 
  • Introduction to a level closed loop system. 
  • Insight into to forward and reverse-acting control loops. 
  • Description of the terms velocity time lag. 
  • The students will change the PID terms and note responses through a set of exercises. 
  • Common faults that could occur in a closed loop system and the consequences. 
  • Introduction to the Pipe and Instrument diagrams.. 
  • Explain the terms 'transfer lag' and 'time constant' and interpret time constants. 

Field Instruments 

  • Identify Digital I/O, Analogue I/O, and Counter cards when using PLC. 
  • Describe the signal expected at the input and output of each card type. 
  • Describe how to measure the level of analogue input for a 0-10v and 4-20mA signal for a 25%, 50% and 75% input, including the corresponding number expected in the controller. 
  • Explain how to follow a digital input from a switch through to the code in a PLC. 
  • Demonstrate using I/O schedules to locate inputs and outputs for field instruments. 


  • Describe the principles and reasons for calibration. 
  • Describe the significance of span zero and the interaction of adjustments. 
  • Describe the acceptable tolerances and the cumulative nature of these tolerances. 


  • Distinguish between non-electrical, electrical and radiation methods of measurement of temperature. 
  • Describe the application and operation of given types of instruments, e.g. bi-metal element, liquid in the glass, liquid in metal, a resistive element, thermo-couple, pyrometer, etc. 
  • Describe the range, limitations and typical process applications of given measurement methods. 
  • Test and calibration of an RTD, PYROs and Thermocouples using transmitters. 
  • The students will then be tasked with converting a temperature to a PLC PID controller, which will involve writing software using transmitters and scaling signals and tuning the PID. 
  • Fault finding on a temperature closed-loop control. 

Duration: 4 days 24h 

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